30-60 min

Eliminating Excessive and Unfair Exclusionary Discipline in Schools Policy Recommendations for Reducing Disparities

After outlining the research on major disparities in the application of school discipline among groups of students, which disadvantage minority, LGBT and ELL children (especially males), this policy brief goes on to make specific district, state, and federal policy recommendations. Suggestions are offered for program implementation, oversight, data gathering, funding, and public reporting.

How Educators Can Eradicate Disparities in School Discipline: A Briefing Paper on School-Based Interventions

Another in the Collaborative policy paper series, this paper provides recommendations on effective intervention measures that build on best research and practice. Interventions to prevent conflict and to intervene when conflict occurs are both addressed in detail, starting with basic principles. For example, conflict prevention principles include: 1) Building Supportive Relationships; 2) Creating an environment of Academic Rigor; 3) Employing Culturally Relevant and Responsive Teaching; 4) Creating Bias-free Classrooms and Respectful School Environments.

The Achievement Gap and the Discipline Gap: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

The gap in achievement across racial and ethnic groups has been a focus of education research for decades, but the disproportionate suspension and expulsion of Black, Latino, and American Indian students has received less attention. This article synthesizes research on racial and ethnic patterns in school sanctions and considers how disproportionate discipline might contribute to lagging achievement among students of color.

Avoid Simple Solutions and Quick Fixes: Lessons Learned from a Comprehensive Districtwide Approach to Improving Conditions for Learning

Urban schools are often viewed as disorderly and unsafe and often have poor conditions for learning that affect student attendance, behavior, achievement, and safety. These conditions include the experience of emotional and physical safety, connectedness to and support from caring adults and peers, peer social and emotional competence, and academic engagement and challenge. Although connectedness and appropriate mental health services can improve safety as well as conditions for learning, many school districts focus on control through hardware and security officers.

Solution-Finding Report: Good Instruction and Decreased Suspensions and Expulsions

This Solution-Finding Report provides information, requested by a State Department for any research “that demonstrates that good instruction (including relationships and high expectations) is a preventive measure or shows a correlation of a decrease in suspensions and expulsions.” The following articles range from somewhat anecdotal (though with useful information) to those with more scientific rigor. Of special note are: Decker, Dona, & Christenson, 2007; Gregory, Cornell, & Fan, 2011; Gregory & Ripski, 2008; Hinojosa, 2008; and REL Northwest, 2012.

Are We Closing the School Discipline Gap?

The main body of this report documents gross disparities in the use of out-of-school suspension experienced by students with disabilities and those from historically disadvantaged racial, ethnic, and gender subgroups. The egregious disparities revealed in the pages that follow transform concerns about educational policy that allows frequent disciplinary removal into a profound matter of civil rights and social justice. This implicates the potentially unlawful denial of educational opportunity and resultant disparate impact on students in numerous districts across the country.

Advancing School Discipline Reform

Published by the National Association of State Boards of Education in Education Leaders Report, this report focuses on how to address students’ behavioral issues while enabling them to succeed. It describes current discipline practice—which is often reactive, punitive, and exclusionary—and its impact on students, achievement, and school climate. The report then reviews alternatives and shows what states can do to advance discipline reform. Each section includes questions that state boards can address in partnership with key stakeholders and using related resources.


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