SOCIAL EMOTIONAL SUPPORT
Level of Effort
Social Emotional Support
Explore these resources to learn about cultural competency, school discipline, and other factors that can impact academic and social outcomes for students.
Behavior Strategies to Support Intensifying Interventions
NCII developed a series of behavioral strategies to support teachers working with students with primary academic deficits and challenging behaviors. Each strategy incorporates key terminology, an overview of the purpose, and all associated materials. The strategies also integrate approaches for intensification for students with more challenging behaviors.
Virtual Toolbox for Mental Health in Schools
This is a virtual toolbox for mental health in schools. Topics include mental health in schools, behavior problems and social emotional learning, and well-being of school staff.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) Evidence-based Resource Center
This Evidence-Based Practices Resource Center provides links to evidence-based practices that address substance abuse and mental health. The Resource Center includes scientifically-based resources such as toolkits, resource guides, clinical practice guidelines, and other science-based resources.
Dear Colleague: Guidance on Ensuring Equity and Providing Behavioral Supports to Students with Disabilities
From the press release: This guidance "emphasizes the requirement that schools provide positive behavioral supports to students with disabilities who need them. It also clarifies that the repeated use of disciplinary actions may suggest that children with disabilities may not be receiving appropriate behavioral interventions and supports."
PBIS Implementation Blueprint and Self-Assessment
From the site: "The purpose of the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Implementation Blueprint is to guide leadership teams in the assessment, development, and execution of action plans. The outcome is the development of local capacity for sustainable, culturally and contextually relevant, and high fidelity implementation of multi-tiered practices and systems of support."
Rethinking School Discipline
In this video series teachers and students deserve school environments that are safe, supportive, and conducive to teaching and learning. Creating a supportive school climate—and decreasing suspensions and expulsions—requires close attention to the social, emotional, and behavioral needs of all students.
Establishing a Supportive School Climate and an Effective Approach to Discipline
This excerpt from a report gives action principles to districts and schools to manage school and classroom climate and promote positive behaviors.
Fact Sheet: Creating Positive School Discipline
Fact sheet showing actual state reports on the effects of positive behavior interventions on school climate and practices to improve and promote positive behaviors within the classrooms and schools. and the community.
Safety Without Suspension
This article mentions many schools that are reducing their number of suspensions and expulsions through a comprehensive approach called School-wide Positive Behavioral Support. This approach is based on the assumption that when educators across the school actively teach, expect and acknowledge appropriate behavior, the proportion of students with serious behavior problems decreases and the school’s overall climate improves.
Breaking School Rules: A Statewide Study of How School Discipline Relates to Students’ Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement
Study provides a better understanding of who is expelled from public secondary schools, and the impact of those removals on students’ academic performance.
Climate Change: Implementing School Discipline Practices That Create a Positive School Climate
“The report recommends implementing measures that address discipline in fair and equitable ways so that schools and districts can improve school climate and ensure that all students graduate from high school ready for college and a career.”
Policy Equity Toolkit
The purpose of this toolkit is to provide a comprehensive set of resources, tools, and processes for engaging in an equity-oriented policy review and analysis. Users will engage in learning about a process for engaging in reviewing and critiquing systemic policies. Examples of what critical conversations about policy sound like are presented, as well as tools to support users in designing and implementing an equity-oriented policy review process in their local setting.
Blueprint for Action: A framework for understanding and improving academic achievement for African American students
This document provides school districts with research-based actions that have shown evidence of effectiveness to improve the educational outcomes of African American students.
Reconsidering the Alternatives: The Relationship Between Suspension, Disciplinary Alternative School Placement, Subsequent Juvenile Detention, and the Salience of Race
Due to the ever increasing numbers of young people and particularly African-American youth entering the juvenile justice system, the need for research that explores the relationship between schooling experiences and entry into the juvenile justice system is grave. The findings in this study illustrates the need for a shift in focus from the deficit thinking about individual children deemed “disruptive” to how school systems contribute across time to the school to prison pipeline and what school systems can do to prevent children from entering the pipeline.
School Climate Improvement: Resource Package
This Quick Guide provides district and school leaders, teachers, school staff, and other members of the school community with the basics on how to initiate, implement, and sustain school climate improvements. Specificially, it explains how making school climate improvements involves 5 sets of activities-- planning; engaging stakeholders; collecting, analyzing and reporting school climate data; identifying and implementing interventions; and monitoring and evaluation-- and then provides for each activity set.
Long Story Short: How Can Schools Reduce Disparities in Disciplinary Action and Promote Student Mental Health?
Racial and ethnic disparities are a significant issue in school discipline and many students who are expelled or suspended struggle with mental health issues. In this video interview, Ken Martinez, AIR principal researcher, discusses the steps that schools can take to reduce these disparities and increase access to mental health services for students.
School Discipline that Improves Academics
AIR hosted a discussion of positive approaches to school discipline with an expert panel holding decades of experience in research and practice. Learn about the relationship between keeping students in school and improved academic outcomes and explore disciplinary policies that don't dampen student achievement.
Overview of the School Discipline Guidance Package
This webinar provides an overview of four components from the school discipline guidance package the US Department of Education (ED), in collaboration with the US Department of Justice, released in January 2014. The components reviewed in the webinar are the "Dear Colleague" guidance letter, the guiding principles document, the directory of federal school climate and discipline resources, and the compendium of school discipline laws and regulations.
Restorative Justice in U.S. Schools: A Research Review
This literature review explores the origins and theory of restorative justice and its current implementation in US schools with a focus on implementation concerns and restorative justice's impact in schools.
Restorative Justice in U.S. Schools: A Research Review
This literature review explores the origins and theory of restorative justice and its current implementation in US schools with a focus on implementation concerns and restorative justice's impact in schools.
Proactive and Inclusive School Discipline Strategies
This What Works Brief summarizes state-of-the-art practices, strategies, and programs for improving school climate. This brief reviews the limitations of obedience-oriented, punitive approaches to school disciplien and describe a range of innovative alternatives focused on cultivating students' self-regulation through positive behavior supports and interpersonal relationship building among students and between students and staff.
The National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments
The National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments (NCSSLE) is improving conditions for learning in schools (K-16) so that all students have the opportunity to realize academic success. NCSSLE provides training and technical assistance on issues such as bullying, violence prevention, mental health, substance abuse, discipline, and safety.
Becoming an Equity-Oriented Educator Through Critical Self-Reflection
This newsletter provides writing prompts to help educators engage in critical self-reflection that positions students as thought partners, co-constructors of knowledge, and resources rather than information receivers.
ED School Climate Surveys
The U.S. Department of Education (ED) is dedicated to helping keep students safe and improving their learning environments. In particular, ED developed the new, high-quality, adaptable ED School Climate Surveys (EDSCLS) and associated web-based platform that allows States, local districts, and schools to collect and act on reliable, nationally-validated school climate data in real-time.
Roundtable: The Perspectives of Youth Affected by Exclusionary School Discipline
This report summarizes a 2013 roundtable where 19 young people, ages 16 to 23, discussed the effects of exclusionary school justice on their own and peers' lives and school experiences. The participants brought up three major concerns: exclusionary justice limits opportunities to learn, is applied disproportionately and subjectively, and deprives students of the support services they need.
Young People Speak Out About Exclusionary School Discipline
The students in this video discuss the negative consequences of discipline that excludes them from school. The young people were part of a group of students who participated in a roundtable on the topic hosted by the American Institutes for Research.
Promoting Student Leadership on Campus
This article provides a set of principles and ideas on how to incorporate the voices of students in the planning and decision-making processes of educational institutions.
Motivation, Engagement, and Student Voice
This report explains the theories behind academic motivation and engagement and discusses how student voice can bolster both.
A Summary of Research on Using Student Voice in School Improvement Planning
This summary reviews the research around student voice, how it can help school improvement efforts, and the different forms it can take (i.e., students as information sources, participants, designers).
Another Look at the Achievement Gap: Learning From the Experiences of Gifted Black Students
Many studies have been conducted on the achievement gap, with most findings pointing to how school and family variables affect Black students’ achievement. Another body of work focuses on how social variables (i.e., peers) impact Black students’ achievement, including how accusations of “acting White” affect the performance of Black students and contribute to the achievement gap. The current descriptive and exploratory study extends this work by examining peer pressure among Black students identified as gifted (n = 166). As part of a larger study, gifted Black 5th through 12th graders were surveyed regarding their achievement-related attitudes and behaviors and perceptions of “acting White” and “acting Black.” Many of the gifted Black students demonstrate an attitude-behavior... more
Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap
Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social– emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–... more
REL Midwest Reference Desk: Closing the Achievement Gaps in Middle and High School
REL Midwest received a request for information on evidence-based research/guidance on how to close achievement gaps in middle schools and high schools. This document reflect findings from a search for research reports as well as descriptive and policy-oriented briefs and articles on closing achievement gaps. The search focused on identifying resources that specifically addressed high school and middle school gaps. The sources included federally funded organizations, additional research institutions, several educational research databases, and a general Internet search using Google and other search engines. The document also reflects other appropriate organizations that may act as resources on this issue. We have not done an evaluation of these organizations or the resources themselves... more
The Influence of Teaching Beyond Standardized Test Scores: Engagement, Mindsets, and Agency A Study of 16,000 Sixth through Ninth Grade Classrooms
In the study, The Influence of Teaching Beyond Standardized Test Scores: Engagement, Mindsets, and Agency, authors analyze Tripod student survey data from 16,000 sixth to ninth grade classrooms during the 2013-14 school year. The report reveals how distinct components of teaching help students become more conscientious, more focused on preparing for the future, and more convinced that smart is something that you become by working hard.
Guiding Principles A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline
Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline, released in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Education, draws on emerging research and best practices to describe three key principles and associated action steps that can help guide state and local efforts to improve school climate and school discipline. This tip sheet lists resources to support the adoption of these principles.
The Vital Role of School-Based Health Centers in Creating a Violence-Free School Environment
This brief argues that issues of school violence, including bullying (and cyberbullying), fighting, use of weapons, gang actions, and self-violence (suicide and depression), can be addressed by the deployment of School-based Health Centers, which can serve as a resource, haven, and source of educational programs for students and faculty. *Discipline Disparities Research-to-Practice Collaborative, a group of 26 nationally known researchers, educators, advocates, and policy analysts, came together to address the problem of disciplinary disparities. The policy paper series was overseen by the Equity Project, Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, Indiana University. Supported by the Atlantic Philanthropies and the Open Society Foundations.
School Climate, Student Success and the Role of School-Based Health Care
This brief outlines the under-appreciated impact of overall school climate on the health, safety, and educational outcomes of all students, not simply those students typically thought to be “problem” kids. School climate has been defined as “the quality and character of school life.” It encompasses the internal social norms, values, organization, and teaching and learning practices within the school. Among the considerations raised include the special vulnerability of young people to their environment, the length of time students spend in the school environment, and their self-perceived lack of power to make changes in a negative situation.
Eliminating Excessive and Unfair Exclusionary Discipline in Schools Policy Recommendations for Reducing Disparities
After outlining the research on major disparities in the application of school discipline among groups of students, which disadvantage minority, LGBT and ELL children (especially males), this policy brief goes on to make specific district, state, and federal policy recommendations. Suggestions are offered for program implementation, oversight, data gathering, funding, and public reporting.
How Educators Can Eradicate Disparities in School Discipline: A Briefing Paper on School-Based Interventions
Another in the Collaborative policy paper series, this paper provides recommendations on effective intervention measures that build on best research and practice. Interventions to prevent conflict and to intervene when conflict occurs are both addressed in detail, starting with basic principles. For example, conflict prevention principles include: 1) Building Supportive Relationships; 2) Creating an environment of Academic Rigor; 3) Employing Culturally Relevant and Responsive Teaching; 4) Creating Bias-free Classrooms and Respectful School Environments. Similarly, the principles of conflict intervention include, 1) Inquiry into the Causes of Conflicts; 2)Problem-solving Approaches to Discipline; 3) Recognition of Student and Family Voice and their Perspectives on Conflicts’ Causes and... more
New and Developing Research on Disparities in Discipline
This briefing paper on New & Developing Research on Disparities describes the results of that new research, and identifies remaining gaps in the literature that can guide researchers and funders of research. The brief is organized into two sections: (1) What Have we Learned? Key New Research Findings describes research from leading scholars across the nation commissioned by The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at UCLA’s Civil Rights Project with the support of the Collaborative, findings from projects supported by the Collaborative Funded Research Grant Program, and other new research on disproportionality in school discipline in the peer-reviewed literature, and (2) Future Research Needs describes gaps that remain in the research base. Although there has been considerable new... more
The Achievement Gap and the Discipline Gap: Two Sides of the Same Coin?
The gap in achievement across racial and ethnic groups has been a focus of education research for decades, but the disproportionate suspension and expulsion of Black, Latino, and American Indian students has received less attention. This article synthesizes research on racial and ethnic patterns in school sanctions and considers how disproportionate discipline might contribute to lagging achievement among students of color. It further examines the evidence for student, school, and community contributors to the racial and ethnic patterns in school sanctions, and it offers promising directions for gap-reducing discipline policies and practices.
Discipline Disparities: Myths and Facts
While the extent of and reasons for disciplinary disparities have been well documented for at least the last 40 years, a number of inaccurate assumptions and myths remain popular but lack research support. This fact sheet describes many of the most common claims about disciplinary disparities, and what research actually says about them.
Addressing the Root Causes of Disparities in School Discipline
This guide provides tools to assess and systematically address disparities in school discipline. It describes how to carry out a descriptive analysis of disparities in school discipline and how to conduct a root cause analysis to systematically address school-based factors that contribute to disparities. These analyses should result in an actionable understanding of the following: (1) Who is being disparately disciplined and what is happening to them, (2) The systemic causes of disparities in school discipline and why they occur, and (3) How you can reduce and eliminate disparities in school discipline.
Avoid Simple Solutions and Quick Fixes: Lessons Learned from a Comprehensive Districtwide Approach to Improving Conditions for Learning
Urban schools are often viewed as disorderly and unsafe and often have poor conditions for learning that affect student attendance, behavior, achievement, and safety. These conditions include the experience of emotional and physical safety, connectedness to and support from caring adults and peers, peer social and emotional competence, and academic engagement and challenge. Although connectedness and appropriate mental health services can improve safety as well as conditions for learning, many school districts focus on control through hardware and security officers. This paper examines the Cleveland Metropolitan School District’s (CMSD) systematic efforts during the past four years that incorporated regular use of school-level data to improve safety, order, and the conditions for... more
Solution-Finding Report: Good Instruction and Decreased Suspensions and Expulsions
This Solution-Finding Report provides information, requested by a State Department for any research “that demonstrates that good instruction (including relationships and high expectations) is a preventive measure or shows a correlation of a decrease in suspensions and expulsions.” The following articles range from somewhat anecdotal (though with useful information) to those with more scientific rigor. Of special note are: Decker, Dona, & Christenson, 2007; Gregory, Cornell, & Fan, 2011; Gregory & Ripski, 2008; Hinojosa, 2008; and REL Northwest, 2012. Solution-finding Reports are intended to provide a quick response to the request for information; they are not intended to be a definitive literature survey or synthesis of the topic.
Letter from the U.S. Dept. of Justice, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, and U.S. Department of Education on Addressing and Eliminating Chronic Absenteeism.
This letter from the United States Cabinet Secretaries announces their long-term commitment to addressing and eliminating chronic absenteeism.
Are We Closing the School Discipline Gap?
The main body of this report documents gross disparities in the use of out-of-school suspension experienced by students with disabilities and those from historically disadvantaged racial, ethnic, and gender subgroups. The egregious disparities revealed in the pages that follow transform concerns about educational policy that allows frequent disciplinary removal into a profound matter of civil rights and social justice. This implicates the potentially unlawful denial of educational opportunity and resultant disparate impact on students in numerous districts across the country.
Every Student, Every Day: A Community Toolkit to Address and Eliminate Chronic Absenteeism
In response and in support of the President's My Brother's Keeper Initiative (MBK), the U.S. Departments of Education (ED), Health and Human Services (HHS), Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and Justice (DOJ) are launching Every Student, Every Day: A National Initiative to Address and Eliminate Chronic Absenteeism to support coordinated community action that addresses the underlying causes of local chronic absenteeism affecting millions of children in our Nation's public schools each year. We believe that when a diverse coalition of local stakeholders work together to engage and support students who are chronically absent, youth and family outcomes of entire communities can be dramatically improved. In short, we believe chronic absenteeism in communities is a solvable problem.
Do Out-of-School Suspensions Prevent Future Exclusionary Discipline?
This evaluation brief examines the use of suspensions in 1,840 public middle schools in the United States and assesses the extent to which they are effective at reducing future problem behavior for students who receive them. The question of whether, and to what extent, a suspension serves as a deterrent for future exclusionary discipline incidents was evaluated for those students who received one or more suspensions at the beginning of the school year (August, September, or October).
Advancing School Discipline Reform
Published by the National Association of State Boards of Education in Education Leaders Report, this report focuses on how to address students’ behavioral issues while enabling them to succeed. It describes current discipline practice—which is often reactive, punitive, and exclusionary—and its impact on students, achievement, and school climate. The report then reviews alternatives and shows what states can do to advance discipline reform. Each section includes questions that state boards can address in partnership with key stakeholders and using related resources. The appendix offers tools states can use in their effort to advance school discipline reform.
Restorative Justice in Schools: Highlights of Research and Practice in the U.S.
In this archived webinar, WestEd’s Anthony Petrosino and Sarah Guckenburg describe their research on restorative justice, a non-punitive approach for dealing with conflict that’s transforming the disciplinary approaches in a growing number of schools. Petrosino and Guckenburg conducted interviews in the field, surveyed practitioners nationwide, and conducted a comprehensive literature review on restorative justice practices in the United States. Their research goals were to learn about current practices, essential elements of implementation, and provide recommendations for future research on restorative justice in K–12 settings. Sam Garrison, Principal of the Camden Street Renew School in Newark, New Jersey, discusses the work of administrators and teachers in using restorative justice... more
Young, Gifted, Black and Worried
This commentary by Ron Walker addresses societal concerns surrounding young black males.
National Black Child Development Institute
The National Black Child Development Institute serves as a national resource agency providing programs, publications, advocacy and trainings related to early childhood care and education; K-12 education; health and wellness; literacy; family engagement; and child welfare.
African American Young Men of Promise Initiative
The African American Young Men of Promise Initiative (AAYMPI) is a three-year pilot program to facilitate the rapid turnaround in achievement of African-American young men, and eliminate the academic achievement gap in Michigan. AAYMPI was launched by the Michigan Department of Education, Office of Education Improvement and Innovation.
Coalition of Schools Educating Boys of Color
The mission of the Coalition of Schools Educating Boys of Color is to connect, inspire, support and strengthen school leaders dedicated to the social, emotional and academic development of boys and young men of color.
Open Society Foundations
The Open Society Foundations aim to address the exclusion of large numbers of black men and boys from economic, social, educational, and political life in the United States.
Schott Foundation for Public Education
Schott supports an “Opportunity to Learn” frame on educational policy, which focuses on ensuring that resources are provided for all students to have an equitable opportunity to learn and produce high achievement outcomes. The Opportunity to Learn (OTL) Campaign unites a growing coalition of advocates and organizers from across the country working to ensure that all students have access to a high quality public education. The Campaign includes local, state and national organizations, grassroots community leaders, policymakers, youth organizers, business leaders and philanthropic partners. Standards-based reform, and the high-stakes testing that goes with it, has been our nation's dominant education policy in recent decades. But this approach has done nothing to address the deep... more
National Clearinghouse on Supportive School Discipline
The National Clearinghouse on Supportive School Discipline (NCSSD) to provides educational practitioners with the resources needed to facilitate (1) The reduction of harsh and exclusionary discipline practices to stem the pipeline to prison and (2) The implementation of supportive school discipline practices. NCSSD is a central source of high-quality, objective, and independent research, data, information, and tools related to school discipline policies and practices.
The SPLC’s Teaching Tolerance program works through educators to nurture a new generation that is more accepting of difference and more engaged in social justice than those that preceded it.
My Brother’s Keeper Task Force: One Year Prorgress Report to the President
This one-year progress report submitted to the President identifies comprehensive, forward-looking recommendations to help ensure that no young person is left behind and that all have the tools to achieve. The strategies focus on addressing the barriers to the path into the middle class and to social mobility more broadly. They include an emphasis on implementing policies to address disparities, developing strong communities that commit to nurturing and mentoring our youth, and encouraging unique public-private collaborations.
Equity and Excellence: African-American Children’s Access to Quality Preschool
This policy report, released by the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER), the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO), and White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African-Americans (WHIEEAA), discusses the lack of access to high-quality early childhood education experiences for African-American children and offers recommendations to expand opportunities.
Education Interrupted: The Growing Use of Suspensions in New York City’s Public Schools
This report, sponsored by the New York Civil Liberties Union and the Safe Schools Coalition, discusses the use of excessive suspension in New York City Schools. The authors examine the effects of suspensions and police involvement in schools on all students, and specifically on African American and special education students. They provide recommendations that include ending the zero tolerance policy, mandating positive alternatives to suspension when appropriate, and increasing transparency around discipline and safety practices.
School Justice Partnership
Initiative funded by the Department of Justice that provides technical assistance to juvenile courts, schools, law enforcement agencies, and others to support school discipline efforts.
Rethink School Discipline: School District Leader Summit on Improving School Climate and Discipline
This resource guide: 1) highlights the important role that superintendents and school leaders play as ambassadors for and implementers of safe and supportive school climate and discipline within their school districts and local communities; 2) offers possible district- and school-level action steps for initiating and enhancing local efforts to create safe and supportive school climate and discipline systems and practices; and 3) share promising practices and useful resources for implementing and sustaining safe and supportive school climate and discipline in collaboration with local stakeholders.
Discipline that Does No Harm: Improving Academic Outcomes for African-American Male Students
The prevalence of disciplinary practices that negatively impact African-American male students was reported in March 2012 by the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR). This report found that African-American male students are 3.5 times more likely to be suspended or expelled from school than their White peers. According to the OCR report, African-American male students made up only 18% of the students in the data sample, but represent 35% of the students suspended once, 46% of those suspended more than once, and 39% of students expelled. This webinar hosted by, Dr. Rose Owens-West, Center Director, and Dr. Christopher Harrison, Research Associate, with the Region IX Equity Assistance Center at WestEd, that addresses: 1) how to eliminate negative outcomes for... more
Learning Environments that Promote Positive Youth Development and Success for African American Male Students
In his book Walking the Equity Talk, A Guide for Culturally Courageous Leadership in School Communities, Dr. Browne has defined the components of school environments that nurture positive youth development, and the seven major actions that culturally courageous leaders must take to create and maintain such environments. Dr. Browne draws from his book to describe those learning conditions, organizational structures, and factors within the social and cultural climate in schools that nurture the positive development of African American male students.
My Brother’s Keeper Task Force Report to the President
On February 27, 2014, the President took action, joining with philanthropy and the private sector to launch an initiative to address persistent opportunity gaps faced by boys and young men of color and ensure that all young people who are willing to do the hard work to get ahead can reach their full potential — using proven tools and focusing on key moments in their lives where we can help make a difference. The Task Force provided a 90-day report on their progress and an initial set of recommendations on May 2014.
Decreasing Dropout Rates for Minority Male Youth with Disabilities from Culturally and Ethnically Diverse Backgrounds
In a time when graduation rates are showing notable improvement among students of color and students with disabilities, there are still great challenges that remain. The National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities has published a monograph that explores the problem of high school dropout rates among American Indian, African American, and Latino males with disabilities and provide an in-depth look into the specific obstacles that impede this young population from graduating, while offering direction and articulating crucial changes that must be made to better serve these students.
Mind-sets and Equitable Education
This article addresses two mind-sets that people can have about students’ intelligence: that intelligence is static or that it can grow. The author argues, “Only in growth mind-set cultures, where teachers and administrators are encouraged to fulfill their potential, will they be able to help their students fulfill their potential in schools that are free of bias.”
Race Equity and Desegregation Terminology
The page defines terms related to race equity and desegregation.
Dear Colleague Letter: School Climate and Discipline
This is a guidance letter prepared by the U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Education describing how schools can meet their obligations under federal law to administer student discipline without discriminating on the basis of race, color, or national origin.
Culturally Responsive Leadership in School Libraries
This article is based on the author’s experiences in Denver Public Schools where there are over 70,000 students with more than 80% representing minorities. The author proposes four levels of reform that would see teacher-librarians provide model culturally responsive leadership, arguing that “school libraries can be a primary voice in promoting the importance of social equity for all students.”
Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Strategies
This brief was developed by the Metropolitan Center for Urban Education under contract with the New York State Education Department. It presents the merits of cultural responsiveness in the management of diverse classrooms and offers some guidelines on how teaches can become more culturally responsive.
Cultural Proficiency Receptivity Scale
This tool guides educators through a series of 15 Likert-scaled questions designed to prompt self-reflection. Results will indicate the degree of receptivity to becoming culturally proficient.
Cultural Competence Continuum
Chart that identifies six elements of the "Cultural Competence Continuum."
Becoming Culturally Responsive Rethinking Teacher Education Pedagogy
This National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NC crest) brief demonstrates the need for rethinking current approaches to teacher education pedagogy and provides guidelines for developing culturally responsive teacher education pedagogy.
Acknowledging Children's Positive Behaviors
This "What Works" guide on positive behavior supports for young children uses "Kathy's" struggle with transitions in her preschool classroom to frame a discussion of acknowledging children's positive behavior. The brief also provides a one-page implementation worksheet.
America's Cradle to Prison Pipeline Report
This powerful report from Children's Defense Fund documents America's "Cradle to Prison Pipeline," where tens of thousands of children and teens are pushed onto the fast track to prison each year. This national crisis exists at the intersection of poverty and societal neglect where we witness the unfortunate truth that all children's lives are not valued equally. As Connie Curry and Julia Cass report in Part II, countless children, especially poor children "already are in the Pipeline to Prison before taking a single step or uttering a word."
The School Discipline Consensus Report: Strategies from the Field to Keep Students Engaged in School and Out of the Juvenile Justice System.
The CSG Justice Center’s School Discipline Consensus Report provides school leaders and state and local government officials more than 60 recommendations for improving their approach to school discipline.
A Framework for Safe and Successful Schools
This joint statement provides a framework supported by educators for improving school safety and increasing access to mental health supports for children and youth.
Addressing Discrimination in School Matters
This brief offers assistance for students, families, and student allies in understanding students' civil rights and addressing instances of discrimination in schools. In addition to providing general information about recognizing and handling instances of discrimination at the school level, the brief walks readers through the Office of Civil Rights complaint procedures.